Earliest day on which Fat Thursday can fall, while March 4 is the latest; celebrated on Thursday before Ash Wednesday. (Christianity)
Kansas Day (Kansas, United States)
904 - Sergius III is consecrated pope, after coming out of retirement to take over the papacy from the deposed antipope Christopher.
946 - Caliph Al-Mustakfi is blinded and deposed by Emir Mu'izz al-Dawla, ruler of the Buyid Empire. He is succeeded by Al-Muti as caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate.
1258 - First Mongol invasion of Đại Việt: Đại Việt defeats the Mongols at the battle of Đông Bộ Đầu, forcing the Mongols to withdraw from the country.
1814 - War of the Sixth Coalition: France defeats Russia and Prussia in the Battle of Brienne.
1819 - Stamford Raffles lands on the island of Singapore.
1834 - US President Andrew Jackson orders first use of federal soldiers to suppress a labor dispute.
1845 - "The Raven" is published in The Evening Mirror in New York, the first publication with the name of the author, Edgar Allan Poe.
1850 - Henry Clay introduces the Compromise of 1850 to the U.S. Congress.
1856 - Queen Victoria issues a Warrant under the Royal sign-manual that establishes the Victoria Cross to recognise acts of valour by British military personnel during the Crimean War.
1861 - Kansas is admitted as the 34th U.S. state.
1863 - The Bear River Massacre: A detachment of California Volunteers led by Colonel Patrick Edward Connor engage the Shoshone at Bear River, Washington Territory, killing hundreds of men, women and children.
1886 - Karl Benz patents the first successful gasoline-driven automobile.
1891 - Liliuokalani is proclaimed the last monarch and only queen regnant of the Kingdom of Hawaii.
1907 - Charles Curtis of Kansas becomes the first Native American U.S. Senator.
1916 - World War I: Paris is first bombed by German zeppelins.
1918 - Ukrainian–Soviet War: The Bolshevik Red Army, on its way to besiege Kiev, is met by a small group of military students at the Battle of Kruty.
1918 - Ukrainian–Soviet War: An armed uprising organized by the Bolsheviks in anticipation of the encroaching Red Army begins at the Kiev Arsenal, which will be put down six days later.
1936 - The first inductees into the Baseball Hall of Fame are announced.
1940 - Three trains on the Nishinari Line; present Sakurajima Line, in Osaka, Japan, collide and explode while approaching Ajikawaguchi Station. One hundred and eighty-one people are killed.
1941 - Alexandros Koryzis becomes Prime Minister of Greece upon the sudden death of his predecessor, dictator Ioannis Metaxas.
1943 - World War II: The first day of the Battle of Rennell Island, USS Chicago (CA-29) is torpedoed and heavily damaged by Japanese bombers.
1944 - World War II: Approximately 38 people are killed and about a dozen injured when the Polish village of Koniuchy (present-day Kaniūkai, Lithuania) is attacked by Soviet partisan units.
1944 - In Bologna, Italy, the Anatomical theatre of the Archiginnasio is completely destroyed in an air-raid, during the Second World War.
1948 - The Pakistan Socialist Party is founded in Karachi.
1959 - The first Melodifestivalen is held in Cirkus, Stockholm, Sweden.
1963 - The first inductees into the Pro Football Hall of Fame are announced.
1967 - The "ultimate high" of the hippie era, the Mantra-Rock Dance, takes place in San Francisco and features Janis Joplin, Grateful Dead, and Allen Ginsberg.
1980 - The Rubik's Cube makes its international debut at the Ideal Toy Corp. in Earl's Court, London.
1989 - Cold War: Hungary establishes diplomatic relations with South Korea, making it the first Eastern Bloc nation to do so.
1991 - Gulf War: The Battle of Khafji, the first major ground engagement of the war, as well as its deadliest, begins.
1996 - President Jacques Chirac announces a "definitive end" to French nuclear weapons testing.
2001 - Thousands of student protesters in Indonesia storm parliament and demand that President Abdurrahman Wahid resign due to alleged involvement in corruption scandals.
2002 - In his State of the Union address, President George W. Bush describes "regimes that sponsor terror" as an Axis of evil, in which he includes Iraq, Iran and North Korea.
2005 - The first direct commercial flights from mainland China (from Guangzhou) to Taiwan since 1949 arrived in Taipei. Shortly afterwards, a China Airlines flight lands in Beijing.
2009 - The Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt rules that people who do not adhere to one of the three government-recognised religions, while not allowed to list any belief outside of those three, are still eligible to receive government identity documents.
2009 - Governor of Illinois Rod Blagojevich is removed from office following his conviction of several corruption charges, including the alleged solicitation of personal benefit in exchange for an appointment to the United States Senate as a replacement for then-U.S. president-elect Barack Obama.
2013 - SCAT Airlines Flight 760 crashes near the Kazakh city of Almaty, killing 21 people.
2013 - 2013 Alabama bunker hostage crisis, after shooting and killing of school bus driver, 66 years old Charles Albert Poland, Jr, by 65 year old Vietnam War era veteran, Jimmy Lee Dykes.
2017 - Quebec City mosque shooting: Alexandre Bissonnette opens fire at mosque in Sainte-Foy, Quebec, killing six and wounding 19 others in a spree shooting.
919 - Shi Zong, emperor of the Liao Dynasty (d. 951)
1455 - Johann Reuchlin, German-born humanist and scholar (d. 1522)
1475 - Giuliano Bugiardini, Italian painter (d. 1555)
1499 - Katharina von Bora, wife of Martin Luther; formerly a Roman Catholic nun (d. 1552)
1525 - Lelio Sozzini, Italian humanist and reformer (d. 1562)
1584 - Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange (d. 1647)
1591 - Franciscus Junius, pioneer of Germanic philology (d. 1677)
1602 - Countess Amalie Elisabeth of Hanau-Münzenberg (d. 1651)
1632 - Johann Georg Graevius, German scholar and critic (d. 1703)
1650 - Juan de Galavís, Spanish Roman Catholic archbishop of Santo Domingo and Bogotá (d. 1739)
1688 - Emanuel Swedenborg, Swedish astronomer, philosopher, and theologian (d. 1772)
1711 - Giuseppe Bonno, Austrian composer (d. 1788)
1715 - Georg Christoph Wagenseil, Austrian organist and composer (d. 1777)
1717 - Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst, English field marshal and politician, 19th Governor General of Canada (d. 1797)
1718 - Paul Rabaut, French pastor (d. 1794)
1737 - Thomas Paine, prominent for publishing Common Sense (1776), which established him as one of the Founding Fathers of the United States (d. 1809)
1749 - Christian VII of Denmark (d. 1808)
1754 - Moses Cleaveland, American general, lawyer, and politician, founded Cleveland, Ohio (d. 1806)
1756 - Henry Lee III, American general and politician, 9th Governor of Virginia (d. 1818)
1761 - Albert Gallatin, Swiss-American ethnologist, linguist, and politician, 4th United States Secretary of the Treasury (d. 1849)
1782 - Daniel Auber, French composer (d. 1871)
1801 - Johannes Bernardus van Bree, Dutch violinist, composer, and conductor (d. 1857)
1810 - Ernst Kummer, Polish-German mathematician and academic (d. 1893)
1810 - Mary Whitwell Hale, American teacher, school founder, and hymnwriter (d. 1862)
1843 - William McKinley, American soldier, lawyer, and politician, 25th President of the United States (d. 1901)
1846 - Karol Olszewski, Polish chemist, mathematician, and physicist (d. 1915)
1852 - Frederic Hymen Cowen, Jamaican-English pianist, composer, and conductor (d. 1935)
1858 - Henry Ward Ranger, American painter and academic (d. 1916)
1860 - Anton Chekhov, Russian playwright and short story writer (d. 1904)
1861 - Florida Ruffin Ridley, African-American civil rights activist, teacher, editor, and writer (d. 1943)
1862 - Frederick Delius, English composer (d. 1934)
1866 - Julio Peris Brell, Spanish painter (d. 1944)
1866 - Romain Rolland, French historian, author, and playwright, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1944)
1867 - Vicente Blasco Ibáñez, Spanish journalist and author (d. 1928)
1870 - Süleyman Nazif, Turkish poet and civil servant (d. 1927)
1874 - John D. Rockefeller, Jr., American businessman and philanthropist (d. 1960)
1876 - Havergal Brian, English composer (d. 1972)
1877 - Georges Catroux, French general and diplomat (d. 1969)
1880 - W. C. Fields, American actor, comedian, and screenwriter (d. 1946)
1881 - Alice Catherine Evans, American microbiologist (d. 1975)
1884 - Juhan Aavik, Estonian-Swedish composer and conductor (d. 1982)
1888 - Sydney Chapman, English mathematician and geophysicist (d. 1970)
1888 - Wellington Koo, Chinese statesman (d. 1985)
1891 - Elizaveta Gerdt, Russian ballerina and educator (d. 1975)
1891 - R. Norris Williams, Swiss-American tennis player and banker (d. 1968)
1892 - Ernst Lubitsch, German American film director, producer, writer, and actor (d. 1947)
1895 - Muna Lee, American poet and author (d. 1965)
1901 - Allen B. DuMont, American engineer and broadcaster, founded the DuMont Television Network (d. 1965)
1901 - E. P. Taylor, Canadian businessman and horse breeder (d. 1989)
1903 - Yeshayahu Leibowitz, Russian-Israeli biochemist and philosopher (d. 1994)
1905 - Barnett Newman, American painter and etcher (d. 1970)
1906 - Joe Primeau, Canadian ice hockey player and coach (d. 1989)
1913 - Victor Mature, American actor (d. 1999)
1915 - Bill Peet, American author and illustrator (d. 2002)
1915 - John Serry Sr., Italian-American concert accordionist and composer (d.2003)
1917 - John Raitt, American actor and singer (d. 2005)
1918 - John Forsythe, American actor (d. 2010)
1921 - Geraldine Pittman Woods, American science administrator and embryologist (d. 1999)
1923 - Jack Burke Jr., American golfer
1923 - Paddy Chayefsky, American author and screenwriter (d. 1981)
1926 - Abdus Salam, Pakistani-British physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1996)
1926 - Amelita Ramos, 11th First Lady of the Philippines
1927 - Edward Abbey, American environmentalist and author (d. 1989)
1929 - Elio Petri, Italian director and screenwriter (d. 1982)
1929 - Joseph Kruskal, American mathematician and computer scientist (d. 2010)
1931 - Leslie Bricusse, English playwright and composer
1931 - Ferenc Mádl, Hungarian academic and politician, 2nd President of Hungary (d. 2011)
1932 - Raman Subba Row, English cricketer and referee
1932 - Tommy Taylor, English footballer (d. 1958)
1933 - Sacha Distel, French singer and guitarist (d. 2004)
1934 - Branko Miljković, Serbian poet and academic (d. 1961)
1936 - Veturi Sundararama Murthy, Indian poet and songwriter (d. 2010)
1937 - Hassan Habibi, Iranian lawyer and politician, 1st Vice President of Iran (d. 2013)
1937 - Bobby Scott, American singer-songwriter, pianist, and producer (d. 1990)
1939 - Germaine Greer, Australian journalist and author
1940 - Katharine Ross, American actress and author
1940 - Kunimitsu Takahashi, Japanese motorcycle racer and race car driver
1941 - Robin Morgan, American actress, journalist, and author
1943 - Tony Blackburn, English radio and television host
1943 - Pat Quinn, Canadian ice hockey player and coach (d. 2014)
1944 - Andrew Loog Oldham, English record producer and manager
1944 - Patrick Lipton Robinson, Jamaican lawyer and judge
1944 - Pauline van der Wildt, Dutch swimmer
1945 - Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta, Malian academic and politician, Prime Minister of Mali
1945 - Jim Nicholson, Northern Irish politician
1945 - Tom Selleck, American actor and businessman
1946 - Bettye LaVette, American singer-songwriter
1947 - Linda B. Buck, American biologist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate
1947 - David Byron, English singer-songwriter (d. 1985)
1947 - Marián Varga, Slovak organist and composer
1948 - Raymond Keene, English chess player and author
1949 - doris davenport, American poet and teacher
1949 - Evgeny Lovchev, Russian footballer and manager
1949 - Tommy Ramone, Hungarian-American drummer and producer (d. 2014)
1950 - Ann Jillian, American actress and singer
1950 - Jody Scheckter, South African race car driver and sportscaster
1951 - Fereydoon Forooghi, Iranian singer-songwriter (d. 2001)
1951 - Andy Roberts, Caribbean cricketer
1953 - Peter Baumann, German keyboard player and songwriter
1953 - Charlie Wilson, American singer-songwriter and producer
1953 - Teresa Teng, Taiwanese singer (d. 1995)
1954 - Christian Bjelland IV, Norwegian businessman and art collector
1954 - Terry Kinney, American actor and director
1954 - Oprah Winfrey, American talk show host, actress, and producer, founded Harpo Productions
1956 - Jan Jakub Kolski, Polish director, screenwriter, and cinematographer
1957 - Philippe Dintrans, French rugby player
1957 - Ron Franscell, American author and journalist
1957 - Grażyna Miller, Italian journalist and poet
1959 - Mike Foligno, Canadian ice hockey player and coach
1960 - Gia Carangi, American supermodel (d. 1986)
1960 - Greg Louganis, American diver and author
1961 - Petra Thümer, German swimmer and photographer
1962 - Nicholas Turturro, American actor, director, producer, and screenwriter
1964 - John Anthony Gallagher, English-New Zealand rugby player
1965 - Dominik Hašek, Czech ice hockey player
1965 - Peter Lundgren, Swedish tennis player and coach
1966 - Romário, Brazilian footballer, manager, and politician
1967 - Stacey King, American basketball player, coach, and sportscaster
1968 - Edward Burns, American actor, director, and producer
1968 - Susi Erdmann, German luger and bobsledder
1970 - Rajyavardhan Singh Rathore, Indian colonel and politician
1970 - Heather Graham, American actress
1970 - Jörg Hoffmann, German swimmer
1970 - Paul Ryan, American economist and politician, 62nd Speaker of the United States House of Representatives
1970 - Mohammed Yusuf, Nigerian Islamist leader, founded Boko Haram (d. 2009)
1975 - Sara Gilbert, American actress, producer, and talk show host
1980 - Ivan Klasnic, German-Croatian footballer
1984 - Natalie du Toit, South African swimmer
1984 - Nuno Morais, Portuguese footballer
1985 - Marc Gasol, Spanish basketball player
1987 - José Abreu, Cuban baseball player
1988 - Tatyana Chernova, Russian heptathlete
1988 - Shay Logan, English footballer
1988 - Aydın Yılmaz, Turkish footballer
1989 - Kevin Shattenkirk, American ice hockey player
1993 - Kyary Pamyu Pamyu, Japanese singer
661 - Ali, cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad (b. 601)
702 - Princess Ōku of Japan (b. 661)
757 - An Lushan, Chinese general (b. 703)
870 - Salih ibn Wasif, Muslim general
1119 - Pope Gelasius II (b. 1060)
1327 - Adolf, Count Palatine of the Rhine (b. 1300)
1465 - Louis, Duke of Savoy (b. 1413)
1597 - Elias Ammerbach, German organist and composer (b. 1530)
1608 - Frederick I, Duke of Württemberg (b. 1557)
1647 - Francis Meres, English priest and author (b. 1565)
1678 - Jerónimo Lobo, Portuguese missionary and author (b. 1593)
1706 - Charles Sackville, 6th Earl of Dorset, English poet and courtier (b. 1638)
1737 - George Hamilton, 1st Earl of Orkney, Scottish-English field marshal and politician, Colonial Governor of Virginia (b. 1666)
1743 - André-Hercule de Fleury, French cardinal (b. 1653)
1763 - Louis Racine, French poet (b. 1692)
1820 - George III of the United Kingdom (b. 1738)
1829 - Paul François Jean Nicolas, vicomte de Barras, French captain and politician (b. 1755)
1829 - István Pauli, Hungarian-Slovenian priest and poet (b. 1760)
1870 - Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany (b. 1797)
1871 - Philippe-Joseph Aubert de Gaspé, Canadian author (b. 1786)
1888 - Edward Lear, English poet and illustrator (b. 1812)
1899 - Alfred Sisley, French-English painter (b. 1839)
1906 - Christian IX of Denmark (b. 1818)
1928 - Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig, Scottish field marshal (b. 1861)
1931 - Henri Mathias Berthelot, French general during World War I (b. 1861)
1933 - Sara Teasdale, American poet (b. 1884)
1934 - Fritz Haber, Polish-German chemist and engineer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1868)
1941 - Ioannis Metaxas, Greek general and politician, 130th Prime Minister of Greece (b. 1871)
1944 - William Allen White, American journalist and author (b. 1868)
1946 - Harry Hopkins, American businessman and politician, 8th United States Secretary of Commerce (b. 1890)
1948 - Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta (b. 1900)
1950 - Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, Kuwaiti ruler (b. 1885)
1951 - Frank Tarrant, Australian cricketer and umpire (b. 1880)
1956 - H. L. Mencken, American journalist and critic (b. 1880)
1959 - Winifred Brunton, South African painter and illustrator (b. 1880)
1962 - Fritz Kreisler, Austrian-American violinist and composer (b. 1875)
1963 - Robert Frost, American poet and playwright (b. 1874)
1964 - Alan Ladd, American actor (b. 1913)
1969 - Allen Welsh Dulles, American banker, lawyer, and diplomat, 5th Director of Central Intelligence (b. 1893)
1970 - B. H. Liddell Hart, French-English soldier, historian, and journalist (b. 1895)
1977 - Freddie Prinze, American comedian and actor (b. 1954)
1978 - Frank Nicklin, Australian politician, 28th Premier of Queensland (b. 1895)
1980 - Jimmy Durante, American entertainer (b. 1893)
1991 - Yasushi Inoue, Japanese author and poet (b. 1907)
1992 - Willie Dixon, American singer-songwriter and producer (b. 1915)
1993 - Adetokunbo Ademola, Nigerian lawyer and jurist, 2nd Chief Justice of Nigeria (b. 1906)
1994 - Ulrike Maier, Austrian skier (b. 1967)
1999 - Lili St. Cyr, American model and dancer (b. 1918)
2002 - Harold Russell, Canadian-American soldier and actor (b. 1914)
2003 - Frank Moss, American lawyer and politician (b. 1911)
2004 - Janet Frame, New Zealand author and poet (b. 1924)
2005 - Ephraim Kishon, Israeli author, screenwriter, and director (b. 1924)
2006 - Nam June Paik, South Korean-American artist, (b. 1932)
2008 - Bengt Lindström, Swedish painter and sculptor (b. 1925)
2008 - Margaret Truman, American singer and author (b. 1924)
2009 - Hélio Gracie, Brazilian martial artist (b. 1913)
2011 - Milton Babbitt, American composer, educator, and theorist (b. 1916)
2012 - Ranjit Singh Dyal, Indian general and politician, 10th Lieutenant Governor of Puducherry (b. 1928)
2012 - Oscar Luigi Scalfaro, Italian lawyer and politician, 9th President of Italy (b. 1918)
2012 - Camilla Williams, American soprano and educator (b. 1919)
2014 - François Cavanna, French journalist and author (b. 1923)
2015 - Colleen McCullough, Australian neuroscientist, author, and academic (b. 1937)
2015 - Rod McKuen, American singer-songwriter and poet (b. 1933)
2015 - Alexander Vraciu, American commander and pilot (b. 1918)
2016 - Jean-Marie Doré, Guinean lawyer and politician, 11th Prime Minister of Guinea (b. 1938)
2016 - Jacques Rivette, French director, screenwriter, and critic (b. 1928)
2019 - George Fernandes, Indian politician (b. 1930)
2019 - James Ingram, American musician (b. 1952)
Andrei Rublev (Episcopal Church (USA))
Aquilinus of Milan
Constantius of Perugia
Sabinian of Troyes
Sulpitius I of Bourges
Valerius of Trèves
January 29 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)