Holidays and observances

Earliest day on which Fat Thursday can fall, while March 4 is the latest; celebrated on Thursday before Ash Wednesday. (Christianity)

Holidays and observances
Holidays and observances


904 - Sergius III is consecrated pope, after coming out of retirement to take over the papacy from the deposed antipope Christopher.


946 - Caliph Al-Mustakfi is blinded and deposed by Emir Mu'izz al-Dawla, ruler of the Buyid Empire. He is succeeded by Al-Muti as caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate.


1258 - First Mongol invasion of Đại Việt: Đại Việt defeats the Mongols at the battle of Đông Bộ Đầu, forcing the Mongols to withdraw from the country.

Events762 years ago

1814 - War of the Sixth Coalition: France defeats Russia and Prussia in the Battle of Brienne.

Events206 years ago

1819 - Stamford Raffles lands on the island of Singapore.

Events201 years ago

1834 - US President Andrew Jackson orders first use of federal soldiers to suppress a labor dispute.

Events186 years ago

1845 - "The Raven" is published in The Evening Mirror in New York, the first publication with the name of the author, Edgar Allan Poe.

Events175 years ago

1850 - Henry Clay introduces the Compromise of 1850 to the U.S. Congress.

Events170 years ago

1856 - Queen Victoria issues a Warrant under the Royal sign-manual that establishes the Victoria Cross to recognise acts of valour by British military personnel during the Crimean War.

Events164 years ago

1861 - Kansas is admitted as the 34th U.S. state.

Events159 years ago

1863 - The Bear River Massacre: A detachment of California Volunteers led by Colonel Patrick Edward Connor engage the Shoshone at Bear River, Washington Territory, killing hundreds of men, women and children.

Events157 years ago

1886 - Karl Benz patents the first successful gasoline-driven automobile.

Events134 years ago

1891 - Liliuokalani is proclaimed the last monarch and only queen regnant of the Kingdom of Hawaii.

Events129 years ago

1907 - Charles Curtis of Kansas becomes the first Native American U.S. Senator.

Events113 years ago

1916 - World War I: Paris is first bombed by German zeppelins.

Events104 years ago

1918 - Ukrainian–Soviet War: The Bolshevik Red Army, on its way to besiege Kiev, is met by a small group of military students at the Battle of Kruty.

Events102 years ago

1918 - Ukrainian–Soviet War: An armed uprising organized by the Bolsheviks in anticipation of the encroaching Red Army begins at the Kiev Arsenal, which will be put down six days later.

Events102 years ago

1936 - The first inductees into the Baseball Hall of Fame are announced.

Events84 years ago

1940 - Three trains on the Nishinari Line; present Sakurajima Line, in Osaka, Japan, collide and explode while approaching Ajikawaguchi Station. One hundred and eighty-one people are killed.

Events80 years ago

1941 - Alexandros Koryzis becomes Prime Minister of Greece upon the sudden death of his predecessor, dictator Ioannis Metaxas.

Events79 years ago

1943 - World War II: The first day of the Battle of Rennell Island, USS Chicago (CA-29) is torpedoed and heavily damaged by Japanese bombers.

Events77 years ago

1944 - World War II: Approximately 38 people are killed and about a dozen injured when the Polish village of Koniuchy (present-day Kaniūkai, Lithuania) is attacked by Soviet partisan units.

Events76 years ago

1944 - In Bologna, Italy, the Anatomical theatre of the Archiginnasio is completely destroyed in an air-raid, during the Second World War.

Events76 years ago

1948 - The Pakistan Socialist Party is founded in Karachi.

Events72 years ago

1959 - The first Melodifestivalen is held in Cirkus, Stockholm, Sweden.

Events61 years ago

1963 - The first inductees into the Pro Football Hall of Fame are announced.

Events57 years ago

1967 - The "ultimate high" of the hippie era, the Mantra-Rock Dance, takes place in San Francisco and features Janis Joplin, Grateful Dead, and Allen Ginsberg.

Events53 years ago

1980 - The Rubik's Cube makes its international debut at the Ideal Toy Corp. in Earl's Court, London.

Events40 years ago
Events31 years ago

1991 - Gulf War: The Battle of Khafji, the first major ground engagement of the war, as well as its deadliest, begins.

Events29 years ago

1996 - President Jacques Chirac announces a "definitive end" to French nuclear weapons testing.

Events24 years ago

2001 - Thousands of student protesters in Indonesia storm parliament and demand that President Abdurrahman Wahid resign due to alleged involvement in corruption scandals.

Events19 years ago

2002 - In his State of the Union address, President George W. Bush describes "regimes that sponsor terror" as an Axis of evil, in which he includes Iraq, Iran and North Korea.

Events18 years ago

2005 - The first direct commercial flights from mainland China (from Guangzhou) to Taiwan since 1949 arrived in Taipei. Shortly afterwards, a China Airlines flight lands in Beijing.

Events15 years ago

2009 - The Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt rules that people who do not adhere to one of the three government-recognised religions, while not allowed to list any belief outside of those three, are still eligible to receive government identity documents.

Events11 years ago

2009 - Governor of Illinois Rod Blagojevich is removed from office following his conviction of several corruption charges, including the alleged solicitation of personal benefit in exchange for an appointment to the United States Senate as a replacement for then-U.S. president-elect Barack Obama.

Events11 years ago

2013 - SCAT Airlines Flight 760 crashes near the Kazakh city of Almaty, killing 21 people.

Events7 years ago

2013 - 2013 Alabama bunker hostage crisis, after shooting and killing of school bus driver, 66 years old Charles Albert Poland, Jr, by 65 year old Vietnam War era veteran, Jimmy Lee Dykes.

Events7 years ago

2017 - Quebec City mosque shooting: Alexandre Bissonnette opens fire at mosque in Sainte-Foy, Quebec, killing six and wounding 19 others in a spree shooting.

Events3 years ago


919 - Shi Zong, emperor of the Liao Dynasty (d. 951)


1455 - Johann Reuchlin, German-born humanist and scholar (d. 1522)

Births565 years ago

1475 - Giuliano Bugiardini, Italian painter (d. 1555)

Births545 years ago

1499 - Katharina von Bora, wife of Martin Luther; formerly a Roman Catholic nun (d. 1552)

Births521 years ago

1525 - Lelio Sozzini, Italian humanist and reformer (d. 1562)

Births495 years ago
Births436 years ago

1591 - Franciscus Junius, pioneer of Germanic philology (d. 1677)

Births429 years ago
Births418 years ago

1632 - Johann Georg Graevius, German scholar and critic (d. 1703)

Births388 years ago

1650 - Juan de Galavís, Spanish Roman Catholic archbishop of Santo Domingo and Bogotá (d. 1739)

Births370 years ago

1688 - Emanuel Swedenborg, Swedish astronomer, philosopher, and theologian (d. 1772)

Births332 years ago

1711 - Giuseppe Bonno, Austrian composer (d. 1788)

Births309 years ago

1715 - Georg Christoph Wagenseil, Austrian organist and composer (d. 1777)

Births305 years ago

1717 - Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst, English field marshal and politician, 19th Governor General of Canada (d. 1797)

Births303 years ago

1718 - Paul Rabaut, French pastor (d. 1794)

Births302 years ago

1737 - Thomas Paine, prominent for publishing Common Sense (1776), which established him as one of the Founding Fathers of the United States (d. 1809)

Births283 years ago
Births271 years ago

1754 - Moses Cleaveland, American general, lawyer, and politician, founded Cleveland, Ohio (d. 1806)

Births266 years ago

1756 - Henry Lee III, American general and politician, 9th Governor of Virginia (d. 1818)

Births264 years ago

1761 - Albert Gallatin, Swiss-American ethnologist, linguist, and politician, 4th United States Secretary of the Treasury (d. 1849)

Births259 years ago

1782 - Daniel Auber, French composer (d. 1871)

Births238 years ago

1801 - Johannes Bernardus van Bree, Dutch violinist, composer, and conductor (d. 1857)

Births219 years ago

1810 - Ernst Kummer, Polish-German mathematician and academic (d. 1893)

Births210 years ago

1810 - Mary Whitwell Hale, American teacher, school founder, and hymnwriter (d. 1862)

Births210 years ago

1843 - William McKinley, American soldier, lawyer, and politician, 25th President of the United States (d. 1901)

Births177 years ago

1846 - Karol Olszewski, Polish chemist, mathematician, and physicist (d. 1915)

Births174 years ago

1852 - Frederic Hymen Cowen, Jamaican-English pianist, composer, and conductor (d. 1935)

Births168 years ago

1858 - Henry Ward Ranger, American painter and academic (d. 1916)

Births162 years ago

1860 - Anton Chekhov, Russian playwright and short story writer (d. 1904)

Births160 years ago

1861 - Florida Ruffin Ridley, African-American civil rights activist, teacher, editor, and writer (d. 1943)

Births159 years ago

1862 - Frederick Delius, English composer (d. 1934)

Births158 years ago

1866 - Julio Peris Brell, Spanish painter (d. 1944)

Births154 years ago

1866 - Romain Rolland, French historian, author, and playwright, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1944)

Births154 years ago

1867 - Vicente Blasco Ibáñez, Spanish journalist and author (d. 1928)

Births153 years ago

1870 - Süleyman Nazif, Turkish poet and civil servant (d. 1927)

Births150 years ago

1874 - John D. Rockefeller, Jr., American businessman and philanthropist (d. 1960)

Births146 years ago

1876 - Havergal Brian, English composer (d. 1972)

Births144 years ago

1877 - Georges Catroux, French general and diplomat (d. 1969)

Births143 years ago

1880 - W. C. Fields, American actor, comedian, and screenwriter (d. 1946)

Births140 years ago

1881 - Alice Catherine Evans, American microbiologist (d. 1975)

Births139 years ago

1884 - Juhan Aavik, Estonian-Swedish composer and conductor (d. 1982)

Births136 years ago

1888 - Sydney Chapman, English mathematician and geophysicist (d. 1970)

Births132 years ago

1888 - Wellington Koo, Chinese statesman (d. 1985)

Births132 years ago

1891 - Elizaveta Gerdt, Russian ballerina and educator (d. 1975)

Births129 years ago

1891 - R. Norris Williams, Swiss-American tennis player and banker (d. 1968)

Births129 years ago

1892 - Ernst Lubitsch, German American film director, producer, writer, and actor (d. 1947)

Births128 years ago

1895 - Muna Lee, American poet and author (d. 1965)

Births125 years ago

1901 - Allen B. DuMont, American engineer and broadcaster, founded the DuMont Television Network (d. 1965)

Births119 years ago

1901 - E. P. Taylor, Canadian businessman and horse breeder (d. 1989)

Births119 years ago

1903 - Yeshayahu Leibowitz, Russian-Israeli biochemist and philosopher (d. 1994)

Births117 years ago

1905 - Barnett Newman, American painter and etcher (d. 1970)

Births115 years ago

1906 - Joe Primeau, Canadian ice hockey player and coach (d. 1989)

Births114 years ago

1913 - Victor Mature, American actor (d. 1999)

Births107 years ago

1915 - Bill Peet, American author and illustrator (d. 2002)

Births105 years ago

1915 - John Serry Sr., Italian-American concert accordionist and composer (d.2003)

Births105 years ago

1917 - John Raitt, American actor and singer (d. 2005)

Births103 years ago

1918 - John Forsythe, American actor (d. 2010)

Births102 years ago

1921 - Geraldine Pittman Woods, American science administrator and embryologist (d. 1999)

Births99 years ago

1923 - Jack Burke Jr., American golfer

Births97 years ago

1923 - Paddy Chayefsky, American author and screenwriter (d. 1981)

Births97 years ago

1926 - Abdus Salam, Pakistani-British physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1996)

Births94 years ago

1926 - Amelita Ramos, 11th First Lady of the Philippines

Births94 years ago

1927 - Edward Abbey, American environmentalist and author (d. 1989)

Births93 years ago

1929 - Elio Petri, Italian director and screenwriter (d. 1982)

Births91 years ago

1929 - Joseph Kruskal, American mathematician and computer scientist (d. 2010)

Births91 years ago

1931 - Leslie Bricusse, English playwright and composer

Births89 years ago

1931 - Ferenc Mádl, Hungarian academic and politician, 2nd President of Hungary (d. 2011)

Births89 years ago

1932 - Raman Subba Row, English cricketer and referee

Births88 years ago

1932 - Tommy Taylor, English footballer (d. 1958)

Births88 years ago

1933 - Sacha Distel, French singer and guitarist (d. 2004)

Births87 years ago

1934 - Branko Miljković, Serbian poet and academic (d. 1961)

Births86 years ago

1936 - Veturi Sundararama Murthy, Indian poet and songwriter (d. 2010)

Births84 years ago

1937 - Hassan Habibi, Iranian lawyer and politician, 1st Vice President of Iran (d. 2013)

Births83 years ago

1937 - Bobby Scott, American singer-songwriter, pianist, and producer (d. 1990)

Births83 years ago

1939 - Germaine Greer, Australian journalist and author

Births81 years ago

1940 - Katharine Ross, American actress and author

Births80 years ago

1940 - Kunimitsu Takahashi, Japanese motorcycle racer and race car driver

Births80 years ago

1941 - Robin Morgan, American actress, journalist, and author

Births79 years ago

1943 - Tony Blackburn, English radio and television host

Births77 years ago

1943 - Pat Quinn, Canadian ice hockey player and coach (d. 2014)

Births77 years ago

1944 - Andrew Loog Oldham, English record producer and manager

Births76 years ago

1944 - Patrick Lipton Robinson, Jamaican lawyer and judge

Births76 years ago

1944 - Pauline van der Wildt, Dutch swimmer

Births76 years ago

1945 - Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta, Malian academic and politician, Prime Minister of Mali

Births75 years ago

1945 - Jim Nicholson, Northern Irish politician

Births75 years ago

1945 - Tom Selleck, American actor and businessman

Births75 years ago

1946 - Bettye LaVette, American singer-songwriter

Births74 years ago

1947 - Linda B. Buck, American biologist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate

Births73 years ago

1947 - David Byron, English singer-songwriter (d. 1985)

Births73 years ago

1947 - Marián Varga, Slovak organist and composer

Births73 years ago

1948 - Raymond Keene, English chess player and author

Births72 years ago

1949 - doris davenport, American poet and teacher

Births71 years ago

1949 - Evgeny Lovchev, Russian footballer and manager

Births71 years ago

1949 - Tommy Ramone, Hungarian-American drummer and producer (d. 2014)

Births71 years ago

1950 - Ann Jillian, American actress and singer

Births70 years ago

1950 - Jody Scheckter, South African race car driver and sportscaster

Births70 years ago

1951 - Fereydoon Forooghi, Iranian singer-songwriter (d. 2001)

Births69 years ago

1951 - Andy Roberts, Caribbean cricketer

Births69 years ago

1953 - Peter Baumann, German keyboard player and songwriter

Births67 years ago

1953 - Charlie Wilson, American singer-songwriter and producer

Births67 years ago

1953 - Teresa Teng, Taiwanese singer (d. 1995)

Births67 years ago

1954 - Christian Bjelland IV, Norwegian businessman and art collector

Births66 years ago

1954 - Terry Kinney, American actor and director

Births66 years ago

1954 - Oprah Winfrey, American talk show host, actress, and producer, founded Harpo Productions

Births66 years ago

1956 - Jan Jakub Kolski, Polish director, screenwriter, and cinematographer

Births64 years ago

1957 - Philippe Dintrans, French rugby player

Births63 years ago

1957 - Ron Franscell, American author and journalist

Births63 years ago

1957 - Grażyna Miller, Italian journalist and poet

Births63 years ago

1959 - Mike Foligno, Canadian ice hockey player and coach

Births61 years ago

1960 - Gia Carangi, American supermodel (d. 1986)

Births60 years ago

1960 - Greg Louganis, American diver and author

Births60 years ago

1961 - Petra Thümer, German swimmer and photographer

Births59 years ago

1962 - Nicholas Turturro, American actor, director, producer, and screenwriter

Births58 years ago

1964 - John Anthony Gallagher, English-New Zealand rugby player

Births56 years ago

1965 - Dominik Hašek, Czech ice hockey player

Births55 years ago

1965 - Peter Lundgren, Swedish tennis player and coach

Births55 years ago

1966 - Romário, Brazilian footballer, manager, and politician

Births54 years ago

1967 - Stacey King, American basketball player, coach, and sportscaster

Births53 years ago

1968 - Edward Burns, American actor, director, and producer

Births52 years ago

1968 - Susi Erdmann, German luger and bobsledder

Births52 years ago

1970 - Rajyavardhan Singh Rathore, Indian colonel and politician

Births50 years ago

1970 - Heather Graham, American actress

Births50 years ago

1970 - Jörg Hoffmann, German swimmer

Births50 years ago

1970 - Paul Ryan, American economist and politician, 62nd Speaker of the United States House of Representatives

Births50 years ago

1970 - Mohammed Yusuf, Nigerian Islamist leader, founded Boko Haram (d. 2009)

Births50 years ago

1975 - Sara Gilbert, American actress, producer, and talk show host

Births45 years ago

1980 - Ivan Klasnic, German-Croatian footballer

Births40 years ago

1984 - Natalie du Toit, South African swimmer

Births36 years ago

1984 - Nuno Morais, Portuguese footballer

Births36 years ago

1985 - Marc Gasol, Spanish basketball player

Births35 years ago

1987 - José Abreu, Cuban baseball player

Births33 years ago

1988 - Tatyana Chernova, Russian heptathlete

Births32 years ago

1988 - Shay Logan, English footballer

Births32 years ago

1988 - Aydın Yılmaz, Turkish footballer

Births32 years ago

1989 - Kevin Shattenkirk, American ice hockey player

Births31 years ago

1993 - Kyary Pamyu Pamyu, Japanese singer

Births27 years ago


661 - Ali, cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad (b. 601)


702 - Princess Ōku of Japan (b. 661)


757 - An Lushan, Chinese general (b. 703)


870 - Salih ibn Wasif, Muslim general


1119 - Pope Gelasius II (b. 1060)

Deaths901 years ago
Deaths693 years ago
Deaths555 years ago

1597 - Elias Ammerbach, German organist and composer (b. 1530)

Deaths423 years ago
Deaths412 years ago

1647 - Francis Meres, English priest and author (b. 1565)

Deaths373 years ago

1678 - Jerónimo Lobo, Portuguese missionary and author (b. 1593)

Deaths342 years ago

1706 - Charles Sackville, 6th Earl of Dorset, English poet and courtier (b. 1638)

Deaths314 years ago

1737 - George Hamilton, 1st Earl of Orkney, Scottish-English field marshal and politician, Colonial Governor of Virginia (b. 1666)

Deaths283 years ago

1743 - André-Hercule de Fleury, French cardinal (b. 1653)

Deaths277 years ago

1763 - Louis Racine, French poet (b. 1692)

Deaths257 years ago
Deaths200 years ago

1829 - Paul François Jean Nicolas, vicomte de Barras, French captain and politician (b. 1755)

Deaths191 years ago

1829 - István Pauli, Hungarian-Slovenian priest and poet (b. 1760)

Deaths191 years ago
Deaths150 years ago

1871 - Philippe-Joseph Aubert de Gaspé, Canadian author (b. 1786)

Deaths149 years ago

1888 - Edward Lear, English poet and illustrator (b. 1812)

Deaths132 years ago

1899 - Alfred Sisley, French-English painter (b. 1839)

Deaths121 years ago
Deaths114 years ago

1928 - Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig, Scottish field marshal (b. 1861)

Deaths92 years ago

1931 - Henri Mathias Berthelot, French general during World War I (b. 1861)

Deaths89 years ago

1933 - Sara Teasdale, American poet (b. 1884)

Deaths87 years ago

1934 - Fritz Haber, Polish-German chemist and engineer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1868)

Deaths86 years ago

1941 - Ioannis Metaxas, Greek general and politician, 130th Prime Minister of Greece (b. 1871)

Deaths79 years ago

1944 - William Allen White, American journalist and author (b. 1868)

Deaths76 years ago

1946 - Harry Hopkins, American businessman and politician, 8th United States Secretary of Commerce (b. 1890)

Deaths74 years ago
Deaths72 years ago

1950 - Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, Kuwaiti ruler (b. 1885)

Deaths70 years ago

1951 - Frank Tarrant, Australian cricketer and umpire (b. 1880)

Deaths69 years ago

1956 - H. L. Mencken, American journalist and critic (b. 1880)

Deaths64 years ago

1959 - Winifred Brunton, South African painter and illustrator (b. 1880)

Deaths61 years ago

1962 - Fritz Kreisler, Austrian-American violinist and composer (b. 1875)

Deaths58 years ago

1963 - Robert Frost, American poet and playwright (b. 1874)

Deaths57 years ago

1964 - Alan Ladd, American actor (b. 1913)

Deaths56 years ago

1969 - Allen Welsh Dulles, American banker, lawyer, and diplomat, 5th Director of Central Intelligence (b. 1893)

Deaths51 years ago

1970 - B. H. Liddell Hart, French-English soldier, historian, and journalist (b. 1895)

Deaths50 years ago

1977 - Freddie Prinze, American comedian and actor (b. 1954)

Deaths43 years ago

1978 - Frank Nicklin, Australian politician, 28th Premier of Queensland (b. 1895)

Deaths42 years ago

1980 - Jimmy Durante, American entertainer (b. 1893)

Deaths40 years ago

1991 - Yasushi Inoue, Japanese author and poet (b. 1907)

Deaths29 years ago

1992 - Willie Dixon, American singer-songwriter and producer (b. 1915)

Deaths28 years ago

1993 - Adetokunbo Ademola, Nigerian lawyer and jurist, 2nd Chief Justice of Nigeria (b. 1906)

Deaths27 years ago

1994 - Ulrike Maier, Austrian skier (b. 1967)

Deaths26 years ago

1999 - Lili St. Cyr, American model and dancer (b. 1918)

Deaths21 years ago

2002 - Harold Russell, Canadian-American soldier and actor (b. 1914)

Deaths18 years ago

2003 - Frank Moss, American lawyer and politician (b. 1911)

Deaths17 years ago

2004 - Janet Frame, New Zealand author and poet (b. 1924)

Deaths16 years ago

2005 - Ephraim Kishon, Israeli author, screenwriter, and director (b. 1924)

Deaths15 years ago

2006 - Nam June Paik, South Korean-American artist, (b. 1932)

Deaths14 years ago

2008 - Bengt Lindström, Swedish painter and sculptor (b. 1925)

Deaths12 years ago

2008 - Margaret Truman, American singer and author (b. 1924)

Deaths12 years ago

2009 - Hélio Gracie, Brazilian martial artist (b. 1913)

Deaths11 years ago

2011 - Milton Babbitt, American composer, educator, and theorist (b. 1916)

Deaths9 years ago

2012 - Ranjit Singh Dyal, Indian general and politician, 10th Lieutenant Governor of Puducherry (b. 1928)

Deaths8 years ago

2012 - Oscar Luigi Scalfaro, Italian lawyer and politician, 9th President of Italy (b. 1918)

Deaths8 years ago

2012 - Camilla Williams, American soprano and educator (b. 1919)

Deaths8 years ago

2014 - François Cavanna, French journalist and author (b. 1923)

Deaths6 years ago

2015 - Colleen McCullough, Australian neuroscientist, author, and academic (b. 1937)

Deaths5 years ago

2015 - Rod McKuen, American singer-songwriter and poet (b. 1933)

Deaths5 years ago

2015 - Alexander Vraciu, American commander and pilot (b. 1918)

Deaths5 years ago

2016 - Jean-Marie Doré, Guinean lawyer and politician, 11th Prime Minister of Guinea (b. 1938)

Deaths4 years ago

2016 - Jacques Rivette, French director, screenwriter, and critic (b. 1928)

Deaths4 years ago

2019 - George Fernandes, Indian politician (b. 1930)

Deaths1 years ago

2019 - James Ingram, American musician (b. 1952)

Deaths1 years ago

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