Feast of St. Paul's Shipwreck (Malta)
Fenkil Day (Eritrea)
Kurdish Authors Union Day (Iraqi Kurdistan)
National Memorial Day of the Exiles and Foibe (Italy)
1258 - Mongol invasions: Baghdad falls to the Mongols, bringing the Islamic Golden Age to an end.
1306 - In front of the high altar of Greyfriars Church in Dumfries, Robert the Bruce murders John Comyn sparking the revolution in the Wars of Scottish Independence.
1355 - The St Scholastica Day riot breaks out in Oxford, England, leaving 63 scholars and perhaps 30 locals dead in two days.
1502 - Vasco da Gama sets sail from Lisbon, Portugal, on his second voyage to India.
1567 - Lord Darnley, second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, is found strangled following an explosion at the Kirk o' Field house in Edinburgh, Scotland, a suspected assassination.
1712 - Huilliches in Chiloé rebel against Spanish encomenderos.
1763 - French and Indian War: The Treaty of Paris ends the war and France cedes Quebec to Great Britain.
1814 - Napoleonic Wars: The Battle of Champaubert ends in French victory over the Russians and the Prussians.
1840 - Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom marries Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.
1846 - First Anglo-Sikh War: Battle of Sobraon: British defeat Sikhs in the final battle of the war.
1861 - Jefferson Davis is notified by telegraph that he has been chosen as provisional President of the Confederate States of America.
1862 - American Civil War: A Union naval flotilla destroys the bulk of the Confederate Mosquito Fleet in the Battle of Elizabeth City on the Pasquotank River in North Carolina.
1870 - The YWCA is founded in New York City.
1906 - HMS Dreadnought, the first of a revolutionary new breed of battleships is christened and launched by King Edward VII.
1920 - Józef Haller de Hallenburg performs symbolic wedding of Poland to the sea, celebrating restitution of Polish access to open sea.
1923 - Texas Tech University is founded as Texas Technological College in Lubbock, Texas
1930 - The Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng launches the failed Yên Bái mutiny in hope to overthrow French protectorate over Vietnam.
1933 - In round 13 of a boxing match at New York City's Madison Square Garden, Primo Carnera knocks out Ernie Schaaf. Schaaf dies four days later.
1936 - Second Italo-Abyssinian War: Italian troops launched the Battle of Amba Aradam against Ethiopian defenders.
1939 - Spanish Civil War: The Nationalists conclude their conquest of Catalonia and seal the border with France.
1940 - The Soviet Union begins mass deportations of Polish citizens from occupied eastern Poland to Siberia.
1940 - Tom and Jerry make their debut with Puss Gets the Boot.
1942 - World War II: Imperial Japanese Army capture Banjarmasin, capital of Borneo in Dutch East Indies.
1943 - World War II: Attempting to completely lift the Siege of Leningrad, the Soviet Red Army engages German troops and Spanish volunteers in the Battle of Krasny Bor.
1947 - The Paris Peace Treaties are signed by Italy, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, Finland and the Allies of World War II.
1947 - Crowds gathered at shop windows in Paris to see Christian Dior's New Look fashion—longer skirts, nipped-in waists and padded shoulders.
1954 - U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower warns against United States intervention in Vietnam.
1962 - Cold War: Captured American U2 spy-plane pilot Gary Powers is exchanged for captured Soviet spy Rudolf Abel.
1962 - Roy Lichtenstein's first solo exhibition opened, and it included Look Mickey, which featured his first employment of Ben-Day dots, speech balloons and comic imagery sourcing, all of which he is now known for.
1964 - Melbourne–Voyager collision: The aircraft carrier HMAS Melbourne collides with and sinks the destroyer HMAS Voyager off the south coast of New South Wales, Australia, killing 82.
1967 - The 25th Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified.
1972 - Ras Al Khaimah joins the United Arab Emirates, now making up seven emirates.
1984 - Kenyan soldiers commit the worst ever human rights violation in the country by slaughtering an estimated 5000 ethnic Somali Kenyans in Wagalla in N.E.-Kenya.
1989 - Ron Brown is elected chairman of the Democratic National Committee becoming the first African American to lead a major American political party.
1996 - IBM supercomputer Deep Blue defeats Garry Kasparov in chess for the first time.
2003 - France and Belgium break the NATO procedure of silent approval concerning the timing of protective measures for Turkey in case of a possible war with Iraq.
2007 - Then Illinois senator Barack Obama announces his candidacy for president in the 2008 elections, which he later goes on to win.
2009 - The communications satellites Iridium 33 and Kosmos 2251 collide in orbit, destroying both.
2013 - Thirty-six people are killed and 39 others are injured in a stampede in Allahabad, India, during the Kumbh Mela festival.
2016 - South Korea decides to stop the operation of the Kaesong joint industrial complex with North Korea in response to the launch of Kwangmyŏngsŏng-4.
2018 - 19 people are killed and 66 injured when a Kowloon Motor Bus double decker on route 872 in Hong Kong overturns.
1486 - George of the Palatinate, German bishop (d. 1529)
1499 - Thomas Platter, Swiss author and scholar (d. 1582)
1514 - Domenico Bollani, Bishop of Milan (d. 1579)
1606 - Christine of France, Duchess of Savoy (d. 1663)
1609 - John Suckling, English poet and playwright (d. 1642)
1627 - Cornelis de Bie, Flemish poet and jurist (d. 1715)
1685 - Aaron Hill, English poet and playwright (d. 1750)
1696 - Johann Melchior Molter, German violinist and composer (d. 1765)
1744 - William Cornwallis, English admiral and politician (d. 1819)
1766 - Benjamin Smith Barton, American botanist and physician (d. 1815)
1775 - Charles Lamb, English poet and essayist (d. 1834)
1785 - Claude-Louis Navier, French physicist and engineer (d. 1836)
1795 - Ary Scheffer, Dutch-French painter and academic (d. 1858)
1797 - George Chichester, 3rd Marquess of Donegall (d. 1883)
1821 - Roberto Bompiani, Italian painter and sculptor (d. 1908)
1824 - Samuel Plimsoll, English merchant and politician (d. 1898)
1842 - Agnes Mary Clerke, Irish astronomer and author (d. 1907)
1843 - Adelina Patti, Italian-French opera singer (d. 1919)
1846 - Lord Charles Beresford, Irish admiral and politician (d. 1919)
1846 - Ira Remsen, American chemist and academic (d. 1927)
1847 - Nabinchandra Sen, Bangladeshi poet and author (d. 1909)
1859 - Alexandre Millerand, French lawyer and politician, 12th President of France (d. 1943)
1867 - Robert Garran, Australian lawyer and public servant (d. 1957)
1868 - Prince Waldemar of Prussia (d. 1879)
1868 - William Allen White, American journalist and author (d. 1944)
1869 - Royal Cortissoz, American art critic (d. 1948)
1879 - Ernst Põdder, Estonian general (d. 1932)
1881 - Pauline Brunius, Swedish actress and director (d. 1954)
1883 - Edith Clarke, American electrical engineer (d. 1959)
1883 - H.V. Hordern, Australian cricketer (d. 1938)
1889 - Cevdet Sunay, Turkish general and politician, 5th President of Turkey (d. 1982)
1890 - Fanny Kaplan, Ukrainian-Russian activist (d. 1918)
1890 - Boris Pasternak, Russian poet, novelist, and literary translator Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1960)
1892 - Alan Hale Sr., American actor and director (d. 1950)
1893 - Jimmy Durante, American actor, singer, and pianist (d. 1980)
1893 - Bill Tilden, American tennis player and coach (d. 1953)
1894 - Harold Macmillan, English captain and politician, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1986)
1897 - Judith Anderson, Australian actress (d. 1992)
1897 - John Franklin Enders, American virologist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1985)
1898 - Bertolt Brecht, German director, playwright, and poet (d. 1956)
1898 - Joseph Kessel, French journalist and author (d. 1979)
1901 - Stella Adler, American actress and educator (d. 1992)
1902 - Walter Houser Brattain, Chinese-American physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1987)
1903 - Waldemar Hoven, German physician (d. 1948)
1903 - Matthias Sindelar, Austrian footballer and manager (d. 1939)
1904 - John Farrow, Australian-American director, producer, and screenwriter (d. 1963)
1905 - Walter A. Brown, American businessman, founded the Boston Celtics (d. 1964)
1905 - Chick Webb, American drummer and bandleader (d. 1939)
1906 - Lon Chaney Jr., American actor (d. 1973)
1907 - Anthony Cottrell, New Zealand rugby player (d. 1988)
1909 - Min Thu Wun, Burmese poet, scholar, and politician (d. 2004)
1910 - Dominique Pire, Belgian friar, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1969)
1914 - Larry Adler, American harmonica player, composer, and actor (d. 2001)
1915 - Vladimir Zeldin, Russian actor (d. 2016)
1919 - Ioannis Charalambopoulos, Greek colonel and politician, Deputy Prime Minister of Greece (d. 2014)
1920 - Alex Comfort, English physician and author (d. 2000)
1920 - Neva Patterson, American actress (d. 2010)
1920 - José Manuel Castañón, Spanish lawyer and author (d. 2001)
1922 - Árpád Göncz, Hungarian author, playwright, and politician, 1st President of Hungary (d. 2015)
1922 - José Gabriel da Costa later known as Mestre Gabriel, Brazilian spiritual leader, founder of the União do Vegetal (d. 1971)
1923 - Allie Sherman, American football player and coach (d. 2015)
1924 - Max Ferguson, Canadian radio host and actor (d. 2013)
1924 - Bud Poile, Canadian ice hockey player and coach (d. 2005)
1925 - Pierre Mondy, French actor and director (d. 2012)
1926 - Sidney Bryan Berry, American general (d. 2013)
1926 - Danny Blanchflower, Northern Irish soldier, footballer and manager (d. 1993)
1927 - Leontyne Price, American operatic soprano
1929 - Jerry Goldsmith, American composer and conductor (d. 2004)
1929 - Jim Whittaker, American mountaineer
1929 - Lou Whittaker, American mountaineer
1930 - E. L. Konigsburg, American author and illustrator (d. 2013)
1930 - Robert Wagner, American actor and producer
1931 - James Edward Maceo West, American inventor and acoustician
1932 - Barrie Ingham, English-American actor (d. 2015)
1933 - Richard Schickel, American journalist, author, and critic (d. 2017)
1933 - Faramarz Payvar, Iranian santur player and composer (d. 2009)
1935 - Theodore Antoniou, Greek composer and conductor
1937 - Anne Anderson, Scottish physiologist and academic (d. 1983)
1937 - Roberta Flack, American singer-songwriter and pianist
1939 - Adrienne Clarkson, Hong Kong-Canadian journalist and politician, 26th Governor General of Canada
1939 - Deolinda Rodríguez de Almeida, Angolan nationalist (d. 1967)
1940 - Mary Rand, English sprinter and long jumper
1940 - Kenny Rankin, American singer-songwriter (d. 2009)
1941 - Michael Apted, English director and producer
1944 - Peter Allen, Australian singer-songwriter, pianist, and actor (d. 1992)
1944 - Frank Keating, American lawyer and politician, 25th Governor of Oklahoma
1944 - Frances Moore Lappé, American author and activist
1944 - Rufus Reid, American bassist and composer
1945 - Delma S. Arrigoitia, Puerto Rican historian, author, educator and lawyer
1947 - Louise Arbour, Canadian lawyer and jurist
1947 - Butch Morris, American cornet player, composer, and conductor (d. 2013)
1947 - Nicholas Owen, English journalist
1949 - Nigel Olsson, English rock drummer and singer-songwriter
1950 - Luis Donaldo Colosio, Mexican economist and politician (d. 1994)
1950 - Mark Spitz, American swimmer
1951 - Bob Iger, American media executive
1952 - Lee Hsien Loong, Singaporean general and politician, 3rd Prime Minister of Singapore
1955 - Jim Cramer, American television personality, pundit, and author
1955 - Greg Norman, Australian golfer and sportscaster
1956 - Enele Sopoaga, Tuvaluan politician, 12th Prime Minister of Tuvalu
1957 - Katherine Freese, American astrophysicist and academic
1959 - John Calipari, American basketball player and coach
1960 - Jim Kent, American biologist, computer programmer, academic
1961 - Alexander Payne, American director, producer, and screenwriter
1961 - George Stephanopoulos, American television journalist
1962 - Randy Velischek, Canadian ice hockey player and coach
1962 - Cliff Burton, American heavy metal bassist (d. 1986)
1963 - Lenny Dykstra, American baseball player
1964 - Glenn Beck, American journalist, producer, and author
1966 - Natalie Bennett, Australian-English journalist and politician
1966 - Daryl Johnston, American football player and sportscaster
1967 - Laura Dern, American actress, director, and producer
1967 - Jacky Durand, French cyclist and sportscaster
1967 - Vince Gilligan, American director, producer, and screenwriter
1968 - Peter Popovic, Swedish ice hockey player and coach
1968 - Garrett Reisman, American engineer and astronaut
1969 - Joe Mangrum, American painter and sculptor
1969 - James Small, South African rugby player
1970 - Melissa Doyle, Australian journalist and author
1970 - Noureddine Naybet, Moroccan footballer and manager
1970 - Åsne Seierstad, Norwegian journalist and author
1971 - Lorena Rojas, Mexican actress and singer (d. 2015)
1972 - Michael Kasprowicz, Australian cricketer
1973 - Martha Lane Fox, Baroness Lane-Fox of Soho, English businesswoman and politician
1974 - Elizabeth Banks, American actress
1974 - Ty Law, American football player
1974 - Ivri Lider, Israeli singer
1974 - Henry Paul, New Zealand rugby player and coach
1976 - Lance Berkman, American baseball player and coach
1976 - Keeley Hawes, English actress
1977 - Salif Diao, Senegalese footballer
1979 - Joey Hand, American race car driver
1980 - César Izturis, Venezuelan baseball player
1980 - Enzo Maresca, Italian footballer
1980 - Mike Ribeiro, Canadian ice hockey player
1981 - Uzo Aduba, American actress
1981 - Stephanie Beatriz, American actress
1981 - Andrew Johnson, English footballer
1981 - Holly Willoughby, English model and television host
1982 - Justin Gatlin, American sprinter
1982 - Tarmo Neemelo, Estonian footballer
1982 - Hamad Al-Tayyar, Kuwaiti footballer
1982 - Iafeta Paleaaesina, New Zealand rugby league player
1983 - Vic Fuentes, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
1984 - Greg Bird, Australian rugby league player
1984 - Alex Gordon, American baseball player
1984 - Kim Hyo-jin, South Korean actress
1985 - Selçuk İnan, Turkish footballer
1986 - Jeff Adrien, American basketball player
1986 - Josh Akognon, American basketball player
1986 - Radamel Falcao, Colombian footballer
1986 - Roberto Jiménez Gago, Spanish footballer
1986 - Viktor Troicki, Serbian tennis player
1987 - Jakub Kindl, Czech ice hockey player
1987 - Facundo Roncaglia, Argentinian footballer
1988 - Francesco Acerbi, Italian footballer
1989 - Liam Hendriks, Australian baseball player
1990 - Barbara Guarischi, Italian cyclist
1990 - Choi Soo-young, South Korean singer-songwriter, actress, and dancer
1991 - Emma Roberts, American actress
1992 - Haruka Nakagawa, Japanese singer and actress
1992 - Reinhold Yabo, German footballer
1993 - Max Kepler, German baseball player
1993 - Filip Twardzik, Czech footballer
1993 - Luis Madrigal, Mexican footballer
1994 - Kang Seul-gi, South Korean singer and member of Red Velvet
1995 – Carolane Soucisse, Canadian ice dancer
1996 - Emanuel Mammana, Argentinian footballer
1997 - Lilly King, American swimmer
1997 - Chloë Grace Moretz, American actress
1997 - Nadia Podoroska, Argentinian tennis player
2000 - Yara Shahidi, American actress and model
547 - Scholastica, Christian nun
1127 - William IX, Duke of Aquitaine (b. 1071)
1163 - Baldwin III of Jerusalem (b. 1130)
1242 - Emperor Shijō of Japan (b. 1231)
1242 - Saint Verdiana, Italian recluse (b. 1182)
1280 - Margaret II, Countess of Flanders (b. 1202)
1306 - John "the Red" Comyn, Scottish nobleman
1307 - Temür Khan, Emperor Chengzong of Yuan (b. 1265)
1346 - Blessed Clare of Rimini (b. 1282)
1471 - Frederick II, Margrave of Brandenburg (b. 1413)
1524 - Catherine of Saxony, Archduchess of Austria (b. 1468)
1526 - John V, Count of Oldenburg, German noble (b. 1460)
1567 - Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, consort of Mary, Queen of Scots (b. 1545)
1576 - Wilhelm Xylander, German scholar, translator, and academic (b. 1532)
1686 - William Dugdale, English genealogist and historian (b. 1605)
1755 - Montesquieu, French lawyer and philosopher (b. 1689)
1782 - Friedrich Christoph Oetinger, German theologian and author (b. 1702)
1829 - Pope Leo XII (b. 1760)
1837 - Alexander Pushkin, Russian poet and author (b. 1799)
1854 - José Joaquín de Herrera, Mexican politician and general. President three times (1844–1854) (b. 1792)
1857 - David Thompson, English-Canadian surveyor and explorer (b. 1770)
1865 - Heinrich Lenz, Estonian-Italian physicist and academic (b. 1804)
1879 - Honoré Daumier, French illustrator and painter (b. 1808)
1887 - Ellen Wood, English author (b. 1814)
1891 - Sofia Kovalevskaya, Russian-Swedish mathematician and physicist (b. 1850)
1904 - John A. Roche, American lawyer and politician, 30th Mayor of Chicago (b. 1844)
1906 - Ezra Butler Eddy, American-Canadian businessman and politician (b. 1827)
1912 - Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister, English surgeon and academic (b. 1827)
1913 - Konstantinos Tsiklitiras, Greek long jumper (b. 1888)
1917 - John William Waterhouse, English soldier and painter (b. 1849)
1918 - Abdul Hamid II, Ottoman sultan (b. 1842)
1918 - Ernesto Teodoro Moneta, Italian soldier and journalist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1833)
1920 - Henry Strangways, English-Australian politician, 12th Premier of South Australia (b. 1832)
1923 - Wilhelm Röntgen, German physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1845)
1928 - José Sánchez del Río, Mexican martyr and saint (b. 1913)
1932 - Edgar Wallace, English author and screenwriter (b. 1875)
1939 - Pope Pius XI (b. 1857)
1944 - E. M. Antoniadi, Greek-French astronomer and chess player (b. 1870)
1945 - Anacleto Díaz, Filipino lawyer and jurist (b. 1878)
1950 - Marcel Mauss, French sociologist and anthropologist (b. 1872)
1956 - Leonora Speyer, American poet and violinist (b. 1872)
1956 - Emmanouil Tsouderos, Greek banker and politician, 132nd Prime Minister of Greece (b. 1882)
1957 - Laura Ingalls Wilder, American author (b. 1867)
1960 - Aloysius Stepinac, Croatian cardinal (b. 1898)
1966 - Billy Rose, American composer and songwriter (b. 1899)
1967 - Dionysios Kokkinos, Greek historian and author (b. 1884)
1975 - Nikos Kavvadias, Greek sailor and poet (b. 1910)
1979 - Edvard Kardelj, Slovene general and politician, 2nd Foreign Minister of Yugoslavia (b. 1910)
1992 - Alex Haley, American soldier, journalist, and author (b. 1921)
1993 - Fred Hollows, New Zealand-Australian ophthalmologist and academic (b. 1929)
1995 - Paul Monette, American author, poet, and activist (b. 1945)
1997 - Brian Connolly, Scottish musician, lead singer The Sweet (b. 1945)
2000 - Jim Varney, American actor, comedian and writer (b. 1949)
2001 - Abraham Beame, American academic and politician, 104th Mayor of New York City (b. 1906)
2001 - Buddy Tate, American saxophonist and clarinet player (b. 1913)
2002 - Dave Van Ronk, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (b. 1936)
2003 - Edgar de Evia, Mexican-American photographer (b. 1910)
2003 - Albert J. Ruffo, American lawyer and politician, Mayor of San Jose (b. 1908)
2003 - Ron Ziegler, American politician, 14th White House Press Secretary (b. 1939)
2005 - Arthur Miller, American actor, playwright, and author (b. 1915)
2006 - James Yancey, American record producer and rapper (b. 1974)
2008 - Roy Scheider, American actor and boxer (b. 1932)
2010 - Fred Schaus, American basketball player and coach (b. 1925)
2010 - Charles Wilson, American lieutenant and politician (b. 1933)
2011 - Trevor Bailey, English cricketer and journalist (b. 1923)
2012 - Lloyd Morrison, New Zealand banker and businessman, founded H. R. L. Morrison & Co (b. 1957)
2012 - Jeffrey Zaslow, American journalist and author (b. 1958)
2013 - W. Watts Biggers, American author, screenwriter, and animator (b. 1927)
2013 - David Hartman, American-Israeli rabbi and philosopher, founded the Shalom Hartman Institute (b. 1931)
2014 - Stuart Hall, Jamaican-English sociologist and theorist (b. 1932)
2014 - Shirley Temple, American actress and diplomat (b. 1928)
2015 - Naseer Aruri, Palestinian scholar and activist (b. 1934)
2015 - Karl Josef Becker, German cardinal and theologian (b. 1928)
2015 - Deng Liqun, Chinese theorist and politician (b. 1915)
2016 - Fatima Surayya Bajia, Indian-Pakistani author and playwright (b. 1930)
2017 - Mike Ilitch, American businessman (b. 1929)
2019 - Carmen Argenziano, American actor (b. 1943)
2019 - Jan-Michael Vincent, American actor (b. 1944)
José Sánchez del Río
February 10 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)