Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Solomon Islands from the United Kingdom in 1978.
Ivan Kupala Day (Belarus, Poland, Russia, Ukraine)
Saba Saba Day (Tanzania)
World Chocolate Day
1124 - Tyre falls to the Crusaders.
1456 - A retrial verdict acquits Joan of Arc of heresy 25 years after her death.
1520 - Spanish conquistadores defeat a larger Aztec army at the Battle of Otumba.
1534 - Jacques Cartier makes his first contact with aboriginal peoples in what is now Canada.
1575 - The Raid of the Redeswire is the last major battle between England and Scotland.
1585 - The Treaty of Nemours abolishes tolerance to Protestants in France.
1770 - The Battle of Larga between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire takes place.
1777 - American forces retreating from Fort Ticonderoga are defeated in the Battle of Hubbardton.
1798 - As a result of the XYZ Affair, the US Congress rescinds the Treaty of Alliance with France sparking the "Quasi-War".
1807 - The Peace of Tilsit between France, Prussia and Russia ends the War of the Fourth Coalition.
1834 - In New York City, four nights of rioting against abolitionists began.
1846 - US troops occupy Monterey and Yerba Buena, thus beginning the US conquest of California.
1863 - The United States begins its first military draft; exemptions cost $300.
1865 - Four conspirators in the assassination of Abraham Lincoln are hanged.
1892 - The Katipunan is established, the discovery of which by Spanish authorities initiated the Philippine Revolution.
1898 - US President William McKinley signs the Newlands Resolution annexing Hawaii as a territory of the United States.
1907 - Florenz Ziegfeld, Jr. staged his first Follies on the roof of the New York Theater in New York City.
1911 - The United States, UK, Japan, and Russia sign the North Pacific Fur Seal Convention of 1911 banning open-water seal hunting, the first international treaty to address wildlife preservation issues.
1915 - The First Battle of the Isonzo comes to an end.
1915 - Colombo Town Guard officer Henry Pedris is executed in British Ceylon for allegedly inciting persecution of Muslims.
1916 - The New Zealand Labour Party was founded in Wellington.
1928 - Sliced bread is sold for the first time (on the inventor's 48th birthday) by the Chillicothe Baking Company of Chillicothe, Missouri.
1930 - Industrialist Henry J. Kaiser begins construction of Boulder Dam (now known as Hoover Dam).
1937 - The Marco Polo Bridge Incident provides the Imperial Japanese Army with a pretext for starting the Second Sino-Japanese War.
1937 - The Peel Commission Report recommends the partition of Palestine, which was the first formal recommendation for partition in the history of Palestine.
1941 - The US occupation of Iceland replaces the UK's occupation.
1941 - World War II: Beirut is occupied by Free France and British troops.
1942 - World War II: German submarine U-701 destroyed off Cape Hatteras.
1944 - World War II: Largest Banzai charge of the Pacific War at the Battle of Saipan.
1946 - Mother Francesca S. Cabrini becomes the first American to be canonized.
1946 - Howard Hughes nearly dies when his XF-11 reconnaissance aircraft prototype crashes in a Beverly Hills neighborhood.
1952 - The ocean liner SS United States passes Bishop Rock on her maiden voyage, breaking the transatlantic speed record to become the fastest passenger ship in the world.
1953 - Ernesto "Che" Guevara sets out on a trip through Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, and El Salvador.
1954 - Elvis Presley makes his radio debut when WHBQ Memphis played his first recording for Sun Records, "That's All Right".
1958 - US President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs the Alaska Statehood Act into law.
1959 - Venus occults the star Regulus. This rare event is used to determine the diameter of Venus and the structure of the Venusian atmosphere.
1963 - Buddhist crisis: The police of Ngô Đình Nhu, brother and chief political adviser of President Ngô Đình Diệm, attacked a group of American journalists who were covering a protest.
1978 - The Solomon Islands becomes independent from the United Kingdom.
1980 - Institution of sharia law in Iran.
1980 - During the Lebanese Civil War, 83 Tiger militants are killed during what will be known as the Safra massacre.
1981 - US President Ronald Reagan appoints Sandra Day O'Connor to become the first female member of the Supreme Court of the United States.
1983 - Cold War: Samantha Smith, a US schoolgirl, flies to the Soviet Union at the invitation of Secretary General Yuri Andropov.
1985 - Boris Becker becomes the youngest player ever to win Wimbledon at age 17.
1991 - Yugoslav Wars: The Brioni Agreement ends the ten-day independence war in Slovenia against the rest of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
1992 - The New York Court of Appeals rules that women have the same right as men to go topless in public.
1997 - The Turkish Armed Forces withdraw from northern Iraq after assisting the Kurdistan Democratic Party in the Iraqi Kurdish Civil War.
2003 - NASA Opportunity rover, MER-B or Mars Exploration Rover–B, was launched into space aboard a Delta II rocket.
2005 - A series of four explosions occurs on London's transport system, killing 56 people, including four suicide bombers, and injuring over 700 others.
2007 - The first Live Earth benefit concert was held in 11 locations around the world.
2012 - At least 172 people are killed in a flash flood in the Krasnodar Krai region of Russia.
2013 - A De Havilland Otter air taxi crashes in Soldotna, Alaska, killing ten people.
2016 - Ex-US Army soldier Micah Xavier Johnson shoots fourteen policemen during an anti-police protest in downtown Dallas, Texas, killing five of them. He is subsequently killed by a robot-delivered bomb.
611 - Eudoxia Epiphania, daughter of Byzantine emperor Heraclius
1053 - Emperor Shirakawa of Japan (d. 1129)
1119 - Emperor Sutoku of Japan (d. 1164)
1207 - Elizabeth of Hungary (d. 1231)
1482 - Andrzej Krzycki, Polish archbishop (d. 1537)
1528 - Archduchess Anna of Austria (d. 1590)
1540 - John Sigismund Zápolya, King of Hungary (d. 1571)
1586 - Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel, English courtier and politician, Lord Lieutenant of Northumberland (d. 1646)
1616 - John Leverett, Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony (d. 1679)
1752 - Joseph Marie Jacquard, French merchant, invented the Jacquard loom (d. 1834)
1766 - Guillaume Philibert Duhesme, French general (d. 1815)
1831 - Jane Elizabeth Conklin, American poet and religious writer (d. 1914)
1833 - Félicien Rops, Belgian painter and illustrator (d. 1898)
1843 - Camillo Golgi, Italian physician and pathologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1926)
1846 - Heinrich Rosenthal, Estonian physician and author (d. 1916)
1848 - Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves, Brazilian politician, 5th President of Brazil (d. 1919)
1851 - Charles Albert Tindley, American minister and composer (d. 1933)
1855 - Ludwig Ganghofer, German author and playwright (d. 1920)
1859 - Rettamalai Srinivasan, Indian politician (d. 1911)
1860 - Gustav Mahler, Austrian composer and conductor (d. 1911)
1861 - Nettie Stevens, American geneticist (d. 1912)
1874 - Erwin Bumke, German lawyer and jurist (d. 1945)
1880 - Otto Frederick Rohwedder, American engineer, invented sliced bread (d. 1960)
1882 - Yanka Kupala, Belarusian poet and writer (d. 1941)
1884 - Toivo Kuula, Finnish conductor and composer (d. 1918)
1884 - Lion Feuchtwanger, German author and playwright (d. 1958)
1891 - Tadamichi Kuribayashi, Japanese general and poet (d. 1945)
1891 - Virginia Rappe, American model and actress (d. 1921)
1893 - Herbert Feis, American historian and author (d. 1972)
1893 - Miroslav Krleža, Croatian author, poet, and playwright (d. 1981)
1898 - Arnold Horween, American football player and coach (d. 1985)
1899 - George Cukor, American director and producer (d. 1983)
1900 - Maria Bard, German stage and silent film actress (d. 1944)
1900 - Earle E. Partridge, American general (d. 1990)
1901 - Vittorio De Sica, Italian actor and director (d. 1974)
1901 - Sam Katzman, American director and producer (d. 1973)
1901 - Eiji Tsuburaya, Japanese cinematographer and producer (d. 1970)
1902 - Ted Radcliffe, American baseball player and manager (d. 2005)
1904 - Simone Beck, French chef and author (d. 1991)
1905 - Marie-Louise Dubreil-Jacotin, French mathematician (d. 1972)
1906 - William Feller, Croatian-American mathematician and academic (d. 1970)
1906 - Anton Karas, Austrian zither player and composer (d. 1985)
1906 - Satchel Paige, American baseball player and coach (d. 1982)
1907 - Robert A. Heinlein, American science fiction writer and screenwriter (d. 1988)
1908 - Revilo P. Oliver, American author and academic (d. 1994)
1909 - Gottfried von Cramm, German tennis player (d. 1976)
1910 - Doris McCarthy, Canadian painter and author (d. 2010)
1911 - Gian Carlo Menotti, Italian-American composer (d. 2007)
1913 - Pinetop Perkins, American singer and pianist (d. 2011)
1915 - Margaret Walker, American novelist and poet (d. 1998)
1917 - Fidel Sánchez Hernández, Salvadoran general and politician, President of El Salvador (d. 2003)
1917 - Iva Withers, Canadian-American actress and singer (d. 2014)
1918 - Bob Vanatta, American head basketball coach (d. 2016)
1918 - Jing Shuping, Chinese businessman (d. 2009)
1919 - Jon Pertwee, English actor (d. 1996)
1921 - Ezzard Charles, American boxer and bassist (d. 1975)
1921 - Adolf von Thadden, German lieutenant and politician (d. 1996)
1922 - Alan Armer, American director, producer, and screenwriter (d. 2010)
1922 - James D. Hughes, American Air Force lieutenant general
1923 - Liviu Ciulei, Romanian actor, director, and screenwriter (d. 2011)
1923 - Whitney North Seymour Jr., American politician (d. 2019)
1923 - Eduardo Falú, Argentinian guitarist and composer (d. 2013)
1924 - Natalia Bekhtereva, Russian neuroscientist and psychologist (d. 2008)
1924 - Karim Olowu, Nigerian sprinter and long jumper
1924 - Mary Ford, American singer and guitarist (d. 1977)
1924 - Eddie Romero, Filipino director, producer, and screenwriter (d. 2013)
1925 - Wally Phillips, American radio host (d. 2008)
1926 - Nuon Chea, Cambodian politician (d. 2019)
1926 - Anand Mohan Zutshi Gulzar Dehlvi, Urdu poet
1927 - Alan J. Dixon, American soldier, lawyer, and politician, 34th Illinois Secretary of State (d. 2014)
1927 - Charlie Louvin, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (d. 2011)
1927 - Doc Severinsen, American trumpet player and conductor
1928 - Patricia Hitchcock, English actress
1928 - Kapelwa Sikota Zambian nurse and health official (d. 2006)
1929 - Hasan Abidi, Pakistani journalist and poet (d. 2005)
1929 - Sergio Romano, Italian writer, journalist, and historian
1930 - Biljana Plavšić, 2nd President of Republika Srpska
1930 - Hamish MacInnes, Scottish mountaineer and author
1930 - Theodore Edgar McCarrick, American cardinal
1930 - Hank Mobley, American saxophonist and composer (d. 1986)
1931 - David Eddings, American author and academic (d. 2009)
1932 - T. J. Bass, American physician and author (d. 2011)
1932 - Joe Zawinul, Austrian jazz keyboardist and composer (d. 2007)
1933 - David McCullough, American historian and author
1934 - Robert McNeill Alexander, British zoologist (d. 2016)
1935 - Gian Carlo Michelini, Italian-Taiwanese Roman Catholic priest
1936 - Egbert Brieskorn, German mathematician and academic (d. 2013)
1936 - Jo Siffert, Swiss race car driver (d. 1971)
1936 - Nikos Xilouris, Greek singer-songwriter (d. 1980)
1937 - Tung Chee-hwa, Hong Kong businessman and politician, 1st Chief Executive of Hong Kong
1938 - James Montgomery Boice, American pastor and theologian (d. 2000)
1939 - Elena Obraztsova, Russian soprano and actress (d. 2015)
1940 - Ringo Starr, English singer-songwriter, drummer, and actor
1941 - Marco Bollesan, Italian rugby player and coach
1941 - John Fru Ndi, Cameroonian politician
1941 - Michael Howard, Welsh lawyer and politician, Secretary of State for the Environment
1941 - Bill Oddie, English comedian, actor, and singer
1941 - Jim Rodford, English bass player (d. 2018)
1942 - Carmen Duncan, Australian actress
1943 - Joel Siegel, American journalist and critic (d. 2007)
1944 - Feleti Sevele, Tongan politician; Prime Minister of Tonga
1944 - Tony Jacklin, English golfer and sportscaster
1944 - Glenys Kinnock, Baroness Kinnock of Holyhead, English educator and politician, Minister of State for Europe
1944 - Emanuel Steward, American boxer and trainer (d. 2012)
1944 - Ian Wilmut, English-Scottish embryologist and academic
1945 - Michael Ancram, English lawyer and politician, Shadow Secretary of State for Defence
1945 - Adele Goldberg, American computer scientist and academic
1945 - Helô Pinheiro, inspiration for the song "The Girl from Ipanema"
1947 - Gyanendra, King of Nepal
1947 - Howard Rheingold, American author and critic
1949 - Shelley Duvall, American actress, writer, and producer
1954 - Simon Anderson, Australian surfer
1955 - Len Barker, American baseball player and coach
1957 - Jonathan Dayton, American director and producer
1957 - Berry Sakharof, Turkish-Israeli singer-songwriter and guitarist
1958 - Alexander Svinin, Russian figure skater and coach
1959 - Billy Campbell, American actor
1960 - Kevin A. Ford, American colonel and astronaut
1960 - Ralph Sampson, American basketball player and coach
1963 - Vonda Shepard, American singer-songwriter and actress
1964 - Dominik Henzel, Czech-Swedish actor and comedian
1965 - Mo Collins, American actress, comedian and screenwriter
1965 - Jeremy Kyle, English talk show host
1966 - Jim Gaffigan, American comedian, actor, producer, and screenwriter
1967 - Tom Kristensen, Danish race car driver
1968 - Jorja Fox, American actress
1969 - Sylke Otto, German luger
1969 - Joe Sakic, Canadian ice hockey player
1969 - Cree Summer, American-Canadian actress
1970 - Wayne McCullough, Northern Irish boxer
1970 - Min Patel, Indian-English cricketer
1970 - Erik Zabel, German cyclist and coach
1971 - Christian Camargo, American actor, producer, and screenwriter
1972 - Lisa Leslie, American basketball player and actress
1972 - Manfred Stohl, Austrian race car driver
1972 - Kirsten Vangsness, American actress and writer
1973 - José Jiménez, Dominican baseball player
1973 - Kārlis Skrastiņš, Latvian ice hockey player (d. 2011)
1974 - Patrick Lalime, Canadian ice hockey player and sportscaster
1975 - Tony Benshoof, American luger
1975 - Louis Koen, South African rugby player
1975 - Adam Nelson, American shot putter
1976 - Bérénice Bejo, Argentinian-French actress
1976 - Dominic Foley, Irish footballer
1976 - Vasily Petrenko, Russian conductor
1976 - Ercüment Olgundeniz, Turkish discus thrower and shot putter
1978 - Chris Andersen, American basketball player
1978 - Davor Kraljević, Croatian footballer
1979 - Ibrahim Sulayman Muhammad Arbaysh, Saudi Arabian terrorist (d. 2015)
1979 - Anastasios Gousis, Greek sprinter
1979 - Douglas Hondo, Zimbabwean cricketer
1980 - John Buck, American baseball player
1980 - Serdar Kulbilge, Turkish footballer
1980 - Michelle Kwan, American figure skater
1981 - Mahendra Singh Dhoni, Indian cricketer
1982 - Jan Laštůvka, Czech footballer
1982 - George Owu, Ghanaian footballer
1983 - Justin Davies, Australian footballer
1984 - Minas Alozidis, Greek hurdler
1984 - Alberto Aquilani, Italian footballer
1984 - Mohammad Ashraful, Bangladeshi cricketer
1985 - Marc Stein, German footballer
1986 - Ana Kasparian, American journalist and producer
1986 - Udo Schwarz, German rugby player
1986 - Sevyn Streeter, American singer-songwriter
1988 - Kaci Brown, American singer-songwriter
1988 - Lukas Rosenthal, German rugby player
1989 - Landon Cassill, American race car driver
1989 - Miina Kallas, Estonian footballer
1989 - Karl-August Tiirmaa, Estonian skier
1990 - Lee Addy, Ghanaian footballer
1990 - Pascal Stöger, Austrian footballer
1991 - Alesso, Swedish DJ, record producer and musician
1992 - Ellina Anissimova, Estonian hammer thrower
1992 - Dominik Furman, Polish footballer
1994 - Timothy Cathcart, Northern Irish racing driver (d. 2014)
984 - Crescentius the Elder, Italian politician and aristocrat
1021 - Fujiwara no Akimitsu, Japanese bureaucrat (b. 944)
1162 - Haakon II Sigurdsson, king of Norway (b. 1147)
1285 - Tile Kolup, German impostor claiming to be Frederick II
1304 - Benedict XI, pope of the Catholic Church (b. 1240)
1307 - Edward I, king of England (b. 1239)
1345 - Momchil, Bulgarian brigand and ruler
1531 - Tilman Riemenschneider, German sculptor (b. 1460)
1568 - William Turner, British ornithologist and botanist (b. 1508)
1572 - Sigismund II Augustus, Polish king (b. 1520)
1573 - Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola, Italian architect, designed the Church of the Gesù and Villa Farnese (b. 1507)
1593 - Mohammed Bagayogo, Malian scholar and academic (b. 1523)
1600 - Thomas Lucy, English politician (b. 1532)
1607 - Penelope Blount, Countess of Devonshire, English noblewoman (b. 1563)
1647 - Thomas Hooker, English minister, founded the Colony of Connecticut (b. 1586)
1701 - William Stoughton, American judge and politician, Governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay (b. 1631)
1713 - Henry Compton, English bishop (b. 1632)
1718 - Alexei Petrovich, Russian tsar (b. 1690)
1730 - Olivier Levasseur, French pirate (b. 1690)
1758 - Marthanda Varma, Rani of Attingal (b. 1706)
1764 - William Pulteney, 1st Earl of Bath, English politician, Secretary at War (b. 1683)
1776 - Jeremiah Markland, English scholar and academic (b. 1693)
1790 - François Hemsterhuis, Dutch philosopher and author (b. 1721)
1816 - Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Irish playwright and poet (b. 1751)
1863 - William Mulready, Irish genre painter (b. 1786)
1865 - George Atzerodt (b. 1833)
1865 - David Herold (b. 1842)
1865 - Lewis Payne (b. 1844)
1865 - Mary Surratt (b. 1823)
1890 - Henri Nestlé, German businessman, founded Nestlé (b. 1814)
1901 - Johanna Spyri, Swiss author (b. 1827)
1913 - Edward Burd Grubb, Jr., American general and diplomat, United States Ambassador to Spain (b. 1841)
1922 - Cathal Brugha, Irish revolutionary and politician, active in the Easter Rising, Irish War of Independence; first Ceann Comhairle and first President of Dáil Éireann (b. 1874)
1925 - Clarence Hudson White, American photographer and educator (b. 1871)
1927 - Gösta Mittag-Leffler, Swedish mathematician and academic (b. 1846)
1930 - Arthur Conan Doyle, British writer (b. 1859)
1932 - Alexander Grin, Russian author (b. 1880)
1932 - Henry Eyster Jacobs, American theologian and educator (b. 1844)
1939 - Deacon White, American baseball player and manager (b. 1847)
1950 - Fats Navarro, American trumpet player and composer (b. 1923)
1955 - Ali Naci Karacan, Turkish journalist and publisher (b. 1896)
1956 - Gottfried Benn, German author and poet (b. 1886)
1960 - Francis Browne, Irish priest and photographer (b. 1880)
1964 - Lillian Copeland, American discus thrower and shot putter (b. 1904)
1965 - Moshe Sharett, Ukrainian-Israeli lieutenant and politician, 2nd Prime Minister of Israel (b. 1894)
1968 - Jo Schlesser, French race car driver (b. 1928)
1971 - Claude Gauvreau, Canadian poet and playwright (b. 1925)
1972 - Athenagoras I of Constantinople (b. 1886)
1973 - Max Horkheimer, German philosopher and sociologist (b. 1895)
1973 - Veronica Lake, American actress (b. 1922)
1976 - Walter Giesler, American soccer player and referee (b. 1910)
1978 - Francisco Mendes, Guinea-Bissau lawyer and politician, 1st Prime Minister of Guinea-Bissau (b. 1933)
1980 - Dore Schary, American director, producer, and screenwriter (b. 1905)
1982 - Bon Maharaja, Indian guru and religious writer (b. 1901)
1984 - George Oppen, American poet and author (b. 1908)
1987 - Germaine Thyssens-Valentin, Dutch-French pianist (b. 1902)
1990 - Bill Cullen, American television panelist and game show host (b. 1920)
1990 - Cazuza, Brazilian singer and songwriter (b. 1958)
1993 - Rıfat Ilgaz, Turkish author, poet, and educator (b. 1911)
1994 - Carlo Chiti, Italian engineer (b. 1924)
1994 - Cameron Mitchell, American actor (b. 1918)
1994 - Friedrich August Freiherr von der Heydte, German general (b. 1907)
1998 - Moshood Abiola, Nigerian businessman and politician (b. 1937)
1999 - Julie Campbell Tatham, American author (b. 1908)
2000 - Kenny Irwin Jr., American race car driver (b. 1969)
2001 - Fred Neil, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (b. 1936)
2003 - Izhak Graziani, Bulgarian trumpet player and conductor (b. 1924)
2006 - Syd Barrett, English singer-songwriter and guitarist (b. 1946)
2006 - Juan de Ávalos, Spanish sculptor (b. 1911)
2006 - John Money, New Zealand-American psychologist and author (b. 1921)
2008 - Bruce Conner, American sculptor, painter, and photographer (b. 1933)
2008 - Dorian Leigh, American model (b. 1917)
2011 - Allan W. Eckert, American historian and author (b. 1931)
2011 - Dick Williams, American baseball player, coach, and manager (b. 1929)
2012 - Ronaldo Cunha Lima, Brazilian poet and politician (b. 1936)
2012 - Dennis Flemion, American drummer (b. 1955)
2012 - Doris Neal, American baseball player (b. 1928)
2012 - Jerry Norman, American sinologist and linguist (b. 1936)
2012 - Leon Schlumpf, Swiss politician (b. 1927)
2013 - Artur Hajzer, Polish mountaineer (b. 1962)
2013 - Robert Hamerton-Kelly, South African-American pastor, theologian, and author (b. 1938)
2013 - Donald J. Irwin, American lawyer and politician, 32nd Mayor of Norwalk, Connecticut (b. 1926)
2013 - Ben Pucci, American football player and sportscaster (b. 1925)
2014 - Alfredo Di Stéfano, Argentinian-Spanish footballer and coach (b. 1926)
2014 - Eduard Shevardnadze, Georgian general and politician, 2nd President of Georgia (b. 1928)
2014 - Peter Underwood, Australian lawyer and politician, 27th Governor of Tasmania (b. 1937)
2015 - Maria Barroso, Portuguese actress and politician (b. 1925)
2015 - Bob MacKinnon, American basketball player and coach (b. 1927)
Æthelburh of Faremoutiers
Felix of Nantes
Job of Manyava (Ukrainian Orthodox Church)
Willibald (Catholic Church)
July 7 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)